Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks in Construction

Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks in Construction


Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks in Construction


Building stones are the naturally occurring massive, dense rock which can be cut or shaped into blocks or slabs for use in wall, paving, roofing materials or other construction works. They have been used as building material since very early period of our civilization. Be it igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary, a building stone is chosen for its use, durability, attractiveness, economy or other properties as desired. Some of the common building stones are Granite, Basalt, Slate, Gneiss, etc. which are discussed below:


Stone as a Building Material

Stone is an essential and more permanent building material in construction than other natural building materials. Based on the type, stones can be used in buildings for flooring, roofing, masonry, paving roads and also as aggregates for concrete. Most of the prehistoric monuments are built with natural stones as they remain stable with time. Before the advent of concrete, stones were highly preferred for heavy engineering works like bridge piers, harbor walls, seaside walls, and for facing works.


Quarrying Stones for Construction Purposes

Stones for construction purposes are obtained by quarrying from solid massive rocks. The stones used for masonry construction should be hard, durable, tough, and should be free from weathered soft patches of material, cracks, and other defects that are responsible for the reduction of strength and durability.


Geological Classification of Rocks

Based on Geology, stones or rocks are classified into three types:

  • Igneous Rocks – Basalt, Trap, Andesite, Rhyolite, Diorite, Granite.
  • Sedimentary Rocks – Lime stones, Dolomite and Sandstones.
  • Metamorphic Rocks – Gneiss, Quartzite, Marble, Slate.


Igneous Rocks: Common Types

Some of the common types of Igneous Rocks which are used for different purposes are as follows:



It is a deep-seated igneous rock, which is hard, durable and available in various colors. It has a high value of crushing strength and is capable of bearing high weathering. Granite is used for bridge components, retaining walls, stone columns, road metal, ballast for railways, foundation, stonework and for coarse aggregates in concrete. Granite Stones can also be cut into slabs and polished to be used as floor slabs and stone facing slabs.


Basalt and Trap

They are originated from igneous rocks in the absence of pressure by the rapid cooling of the magma. They have the same uses as granite.



Sedimentary Rocks: Common Types

 Some of the common types of Sedimentary Rocks which are used for different purposes are as follows:



It is a sedimentary rock formed by remnants of seaweeds and living organisms consolidated and cemented together. It contains a high percentage of calcium carbonate. Limestone is used for flooring, roofing, and pavements and also as a base material for cement. 



This stone is another form of sedimentary rock formed by the action of mechanical sediments. It has a sandy structure which is low in strength and easy to dress. They are used for ornamental works, paving and as road metal.



It can be recognized by its elongated platy minerals usually mixed with mica and used in the same way as granite. They can be used for flooring, pavement and not for major purposes because of its weakness.



Different Kinds and Types of Stone Finishes
Different Kinds and Types of Stone Finishes



Metamorphic Rocks: Common Types

Some of the common types of Metamorphic Rocks which are used for different purposes are as follows:


It is a metamorphic rock which can be easily cut and carved into different shapes. It is used for ornamental purposes, stone facing slabs, flooring, facing works etc.



It is a metamorphic rock which can be split easily and available in black color. It is used for damp-proofing flooring and roofing.



It is a metamorphic rock which is hard, brittle, crystalline and durable. It is difficult to work with and used in the same way as granite but not recommended for ornamental works as it is brittle.



It is decomposed from igneous rocks; occur in soft and hard varieties. It contains a high percentage of iron oxide and can be easily cut into blocks. The soft variety is used for walls after curing while the hard blocks are used for paving the pathways.


Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Uses

These stones are used for various purposes. Some of the applications are as bellows:

Fine-grained granite and gneiss stones are used for Heavy engineering works such as building bridge piers, breakwaters, monuments, etc.

  • Granite, quartzite and compact sandstones are used for masonry works in industrial areas exposed to smoke and fumes.
  • Marble, granite and sandstone are used for facing work of buildings.
  • Limestone and sandstone are used for general building works.
  • Fine-grained granite, marble, and soft sandstone are used for Carvings and ornamental works.
  • Compact limestone and sandstone are used for Fire-resistant masonry.
  • Granite, quartzite stones are used in foundations of building in places with the high groundwater level.
  • Marble, slate, sandstone and granite stones are used for floor pavings.

If you need any assistance regarding marble and travertine types in Niayesh Stone, please leave a message via contact form. We will get back to you as soon as we can. Thank you!

To learn more about us, click here

Send your price quotes directly to our WhatsApp through this Link: https://wa.link/ord5k8




Post a comment

Your email address will not be published.

Business contact


WWW.NIAYESHSTONE.COM is Our Only Official Website. Niayesh Stone Does Not Have Any Sales Branches or Associates Inside or Outside Iran.