All stones that are extracted from natural quarry and used after production are called natural stones.
These stones are named in various categories, and sometimes the stone quarry name is used as its name.
The most common building stones are:
Igneous rocks are also known as volcanic rocks and are formed from the magma freezing; Depending on the speed at which magma turns into igneous rock, the crystals size and type will vary. But the faster this process is done, the better the stone texture will be.
The igneous formation process rock may be done inside or on the earth surface, and based on this, they can be divided into two categories: external and internal igneous.
But in more detail, they are divided into three groups, which include internal igneous rocks, external igneous rocks, and superficial igneous rocks. Igneous rocks types include:
In addition to flowing on the earth surface, magma also flows in underground paths, and if the magma cools in these underground paths, it creates internal igneous rock. The magma movement underground speed is lower, which causes the texture and crystals in this rock type to become coarse.
If the magma cools at a shallow level below the crust, it causes surface igneous rock to form. These rocks are not like internal igneous rocks in the earth depth, nor are they placed on the earth’s crust like surface igneous rocks, that’s why they are called surface igneous rocks.
If the magma inside the earth finds a way out, it will flow on the earth surface and form the external igneous rock as a cooling result. The cooling speed is higher in external igneous rocks, and this has caused this rock texture to be finer.
After precipitation, rain and snow move towards the seas in the running water form. Rivers usually carry mud, soil, sand, and anything light in its path to the seas and lakes and pile them up on the ocean floor.
Accumulations are placed on top of each other in the form of layers and after some time due to the upper layers’ pressure and water pressure, they become hard and dense and create sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary rocks are divided into four categories: siliceous sediments, biochemical sediments, igneous sediments and chemical sediments. Sedimentary rocks are very important in the earth’s history study due to remains organisms’ presence and various compounds.
Rocks may change from one form to another due to physical and chemical conditions, the rocks resulting from the other rocks change in the solid state are called metamorphic rocks.
If any rock is changed by exposure to high temperature and high pressure or by the replacement of fluids without melting; In such a way that they no longer resemble the primary stones, it is called a metamorphic stone. These changes may occur on metamorphic rocks, sedimentary rocks, and igneous rocks.
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Memarian H. (2008), “Engineering Geology and Geotechnics”, Tehran University, Publishing and Printing Institute, 954 pages.
Fazlnia A., Pir Kharati and Moradi H. (2016), “Applied Petrology”, Urmia University, Urmia University Publications, 354 pages